© 2013 by Preventive Medical Health Care Co., LTD.

In 2008, Stroke caused 6.2 million deaths (~11% of the total) worldwide. Approximately 17 million people had a stroke in 2010 and 33 million people have previously had a stroke and are still alive. Between 1990 and 2010 the number of strokes decrease by approximately 10% in the developed world and increased by 10% in the developing world. Overall two thirds of strokes occurred in those over 65 years old.

 

In the United States, stroke is a leading cause of disability, and recently declined from the third leading to the fourth leading cause of death. The incidence of stroke increases exponentially from 30 years of age, and etiology varies by age. Advanced age is one of the most significant stroke risk factors. 95% of strokes occur in people age 45 and older, and two-thirds of strokes occur in those over the age of 65. A person's risk of dying if he or she does have a stroke also increases with age. However, stroke can occur at any age, including in childhood.

 

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke)

 

Prevalence

90 percent of people living with stroke have some functional limitations.

 

(i)     Muscle weakness

 

(ii)    Pain

 

(iii)   Spasticity

 

(iv)   Cognitive dysfunction

 

(v)    Poor balance

 

(vi)   Frequent falls.

 

(Eng. 2008, Balance, falls, and bone health: Role of exercise in reducing fracture risk after stroke, JRRD, Vol 45, 2008)

 

Clinical Symptoms

Exercise has been used to improve cardiovascular health in the attempt to reduce secondary complications such as recurrent stroke.

Given the many health benefits associated with exercise, it should be considered an important modality for the management of falls and maintenance of bone health following stroke.

 

(Eng. 2008, Balance, falls, and bone health: Role of exercise in reducing fracture risk after stroke, JRRD, Vol 45, 2008)

 

The main aim of rehabilitation is to optimize patients’ ability to function, to improve their quality of life.

 

(Katz-Leurer, 2003,The Influence of Early Aerobic Training on the Functional Capacity in Patients With Cerebrovascular Accident at the Subacute Stage, Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 84, November 2003)

 

The most commonly used types of neuro-rehabilitation treatment include:

 

(i)     Lower abnormal muscle tone

 

(ii)    ROM mobility

 

(iii)   Functional strengthening

 

(iv)   Functional movement

 

(v)    Balance

 

(vi)   Gait training

 

Clinical Treatment
1
2
3
6
5
4

Pre-Gait Training

Practice Components of Functional Movement

Facilitation Selection Movement

Balance Training

Maintain Range of Motion

Reduce Spascity

Neuro-Rehab
Therapeutic Effect

Exercise is a treatment modality that has been typically used during stroke recovery to improve motor function. Given the many health benefits associated with exercise, it should be considered an important modality for the management of falls and maintenance of bone health following stroke.

 

(Eng. 2008, Balance, falls, and bone health: Role of exercise in reducing fracture risk after stroke, JRRD, Vol 45, 2008)

 

Standing balance plays an important role in functional mobility after stroke.

Sit-to-stand (STS) and gait parameters were correlated significantly with rising speed and maximal vertical force of both legs during rising.

 

Paretic muscle strength and the ability to load the paretic limb are important factors underlying the ability to rise from a chair in individuals with chronic stroke.

 

(Lomaglio 2005, Muscle Strength and Weight-Bearing Symmetry Relate to Sit-to-Stand Performance in Individuals with Stroke, Gait Posture. 2005 October ; 22(2): 126–131.)

 

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Preventive Medical Health Care Co., Ltd.